It refers to the emotional and physiological reaction/ reactions experienced when an individual confronts a situation in which demand go beyond their coping resources for example marital problem, death of loved one, health problems, abuse, and financial crises. This stress led to alteration in function of the hypothalamic –pituitary-adrenal axis causing excessive release of cortisol which can led to poor sleep quality .
POOR SLEEPING HYGIENE
Many people don’t know what they do before going to bed really affect their sleep for example eating 2-3 hours before bedtime or eating large amounts of meal causes lack of sleep .Changing your sleeping or walking routine and time, turning on electronic device when you go to bed and bedroom being noisy, having a lot of light and hotness all these are conditions that triggers not to sleep well
USE OF DRUGS AND ALCOHOL
Drugs such as stimulants including certain medications ,caffeine ,nicotine and alcohol or withdraw from drugs causes sleeplessness since they interferes with sleep homeostasis and the body’s sleep regulating mechanism as they used to drugs
An injury or a condition that causes pains can preclude an individual from finding a comfortable position in which to sleep so the sleeplessness .For example an individual with restless leg syndrome can cause sleep onset insomnia due to discomforting sensation felt and the need to move the legs or other body part to relieve the sensation.
Events like fear ,stress ,anxiety ,emotional and mental tension can make one to be sleepless because you want to know what will happen or afraid of what will happen next.
All these are the major factors that leads to Insomnia.