Before you get started: Filter the book by reading the preface, index, table of contents, and inside jacket. This tells you where the author is going to take you and, importantly, the vocabulary they will use.
There are three steps to effectively taking notes while reading:
Can you tell me how you take notes while reading?
I’ve been asked this question a lot. What they are really getting at is … how can I better understand what I’m reading.
Knowledge acquisition from reading is a function of what you read (and how you read), what you retain and connect, and the ability retrieve information and make connections to hypothesize about the future.
In recent years I’ve focused on building a good system to improve my ability to retain more of what I read.
One of the best ways to better filter and connect ideas is to read with pen in hand so you can take notes while reading. This Marginalia — the tiny fragments that come into your head while reading — is a dying but important art that helps you remember what you read.
Like almost everything in life there is no magical answer that fits everyone.
I can speak to the three-step process that works effectively for me and scales well. I’ve used it on as few as 10 books as as many as 150 books a year. In the end, you’re going to need to create a system that works for you.
While this sounds like a bit of trial and error (because it is), it’s the only way to create lasting habit changes, improve your recall, and be able to easily find that passage you’re looking for.
The first thing I do when I pick up a book is read the preface, the table of contents, and the inside jacket. Often, I’ll glance over the index too. This doesn’t take long and often saves me time, as a lot of books do not make it past this filter. Maybe it doesn’t contain the information I’m trying to gain. If it seems crappy, I’ll flip to a few random pages to verify.
This filter is a form of systematic skimming. This isn’t my term, Mortimer Adler, a guy who literally wrote the the book on reading, came up with it. Adler says there are four levels of reading. I tend to blend inspectional reading and analytical reading together for most books.
When I start reading the book, I have an idea what it’s about, the main argument, and some of the terminology involved. I know where the author is going to take me and the broad strokes of how they will bring me along.
While reading, I take notes. I circle words I need to look up. I star points that I think are critical to the argument. I underline anything that strikes me as interesting. I comment like a mad man in the margins. I try to tease out assumptions, etc.
Essentially, I’m trying to engage in a conversation with the author. Maybe my questions will be answered on the next page or in the next chapter. Maybe I’ll need to find another book to answer them. Who knows. But I write them down.
At the end of each chapter I write a few bullet points that summarize what I’ve just read. When I’m done, I write a brief summary of the entire book and then I do something few other people do. I let the book age.
I put the book on my desk and I won’t touch it for anywhere from a few days to a week. This is very important.
When I pick the book up again, I re-read every scribble, underline, and comment I’ve made (assuming I can still read my writing).
I’m not the same person I was the first time I read the book, two things have changed: (1) I’ve read the entire book and (2) I’ve had a chance to sleep on what may have seemed earth-shattering at the time but now just seems meh.
If something still strikes my interest, I write a note in the first few pages of the book, in my own words, on the topic. Often this is a summary but increasingly it’s ways to apply the knowledge. I index this to the page number in the book.
Sometimes, and this depends on the book, I’ll create a sort of mental summary of the book’s main arguments and gaps. Sometimes I’ll cross-link points with other books.
Step 3 (optional but highly effective).
Wait a few days. Then go through the book and copy out excerpts by hand and put them into your repository or common place book. I use these notes to connect and synthesize ideas as I read.
To aid recall connect the ideas to something you already have in your mind. Is it a continuation of the idea? Does it replace an idea? Is it the same idea in a difference discipline? I add these connections to my notes and percolate them in my mind. Often I turn out to be mistaken but that’s the process.
Most of the time, you get to see the ideas on Farnam Street. You can see how I connect and contextualize ideas, linking them across disciplines. I find writing about the ideas really helps me develop my understanding.
Even if you don’t share your thoughts with millions of people you can do the same thing with Evernote, which is searchable, easy to use, and free. Personally, I do not use technology as a substitute for the non-technological approach mentioned above but rather as a complement.
I rarely listen to books but if you are listening to a book, create a new note for that book and type in notes as you are listening. I know a few people that do not take notes as they are listening because they listen in the car on the way to work. They find that sitting down right away when they get to work and typing up notes is an effective way to improve recall although the notes are less accurate.
If you liked this article, you’ll love these four.
The Feynman Technique: The Best Way to Learn Anything — Nobel winner Richard Feynman shares his secret to learning anything, which also works as an excellent framework for thinking and identifying gaps in other peoples knowledge.
A System for Remembering What you Read — The system I use for non-fiction books that enables me to remember quite a bit. And when I can’t remember I generally know where to look to find the answers.
The Art of Reading — We literally created a course to help people learn to read better and more effectively.
The Most Effective Way to Retain What You Read — Become a more effective reader with these simple tips from Nassim Taleb and psychologist Robert Cialdini designed to help you retain more of what you read.