by Derek Beres
One major advancement of Buddhism was the implementation of a universal approach to self-realization. Until that point — and, for the most part, ever since — spiritual platforms have relied on making an enemy of “the other.” Another group must stand in the way of your tribe’s glory; it is up to your faith to dismantle their structures for you to ascend to imagined heights.
Siddhartha Gautama pushed all that to the side. Well aware of rampant tribalism across India, he often had to play local politics in his founding of the many sanghas being created. The practice itself, however, did not rely on external enemies. The great challenger is your own mind, a lesson he was taught, his adherents say, during a battle with the demon-god Mara one fateful evening (or week, depending on the reading of that particular mythology).
Indeed, recent research suggests that our minds play a critical role — as New Agey as it may sound — in how we perceive and, in turn, experience our physical realities.
Before we get into that, though, at the heart of Buddhism is the Four Noble Truths, which coincide with the researchers’ findings. The first: all life is dukkha. The Pali word is most famously translated as “suffering,” which fits into the mindset of other religious traditions well yet does not serve the Buddhist understanding perfectly. Suffering is often extrapolated and applied to the persecution of Jews, Christians, and Muslims, all of whom have been (and continue to be) oppressed due to political circumstances. Even Buddhists don’t escape this fate.
It’s not that “suffering” is wrong, per se, but we have to recognize the type of suffering Gautama implied. Other translations of the term include difficult, causing pain, distress, and my personal favorite, uneasy. You suffer because your mind is restless. To put it another way: you wish the world was one way, and when it isn’t you feel discontent. The other three noble truths address how not to feel this way.
At the end of the four directives lies the eightfold path, all of which begin with “right”: right view, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. In this sense, “right” is not opposed to “wrong” as much as it is a reminder that there are a variety of ways to perceive and act in accordance with reality. Many paths lead to suffering/uneasiness/discontent. Some do not. Understanding and implementing the latter is the path of Buddhism.
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