The post pregnancy period is the period after conveyance of conceptus when maternal physiological and anatomical changes get back to the nonpregnant state. The post pregnancy period, otherwise called puerperium, begins following the removal of the placenta until complete physiological recuperation of different organ frameworks. The post pregnancy period partitions into three self-assertive stages, i.e., intense stage – the initial 24 hours after conveyance of the placenta, right on time as long as 7 days, and late – as long as about a month and a half to a half year. Each stage has its remarkable clinical contemplations and difficulties.
Quickly following the conveyance, the uterus, and the placental site contracts quickly to forestall further blood misfortune. This quick uterine constriction can prompt stomach agony or spasms after labor. Now, the uterus has an expanded tone, feels firm, and gauges 1000 gms, and toward the finish of the principal week, it gauges 500 gms, and by about a month and a half, it weighs roughly 50 gms. The female may gripe. At first, the withdrawal of the uterus is because of a significant decrease in myometrial cell size; it tightens the veins and restricts the dying.
The ensuing lessening in size is because of autolysis and dead tissue of uterine veins. The withdrawal of estrogen and progesterone prompts an expansion in the action of uterine collagenase and other proteolytic compounds, speeding up the cycle of autolysis. The intima and versatile tissues in the uterine veins additionally go through fibrosis and hyaline degeneration, prompting localized necrosis and shedding of more uterine cells, which are eliminated by macrophages. The shallow and basal layers of the endometrium become necrotic and sloughed. The endometrium is typically completely reestablished inside 2 to 3 weeks.
The lochia is the vaginal release that begins from the uterus, cervix, and vagina. The lochia is at first red and contained blood and parts of decidua, endometrial tissues, and bodily fluid and keeps going 1 to 4 days. The lochia at that point changes tone to yellowish or pale earthy colored, enduring 5 to 9 days, and is involved primarily of blood, bodily fluid, and leucocytes. At long last, the lochia is white and contains generally bodily fluid, enduring up to 10 to 14 days. The lochia can continue as long as 5 weeks post pregnancy. The ingenuity of red lochia past multi week may be a pointer of uterine subinvolution. The presence of a hostile scent or huge bits of tissue or blood clumps in lochia or the shortfall of lochia may be an indication of contamination. The cervix and vagina might be edematous and wounded in the early post pregnancy period and continuously mend back to typical.
When the ovarian capacity resumes, rugae begin to show up in the vagina, typically by the third week in females that are not breastfeeding. Essentially, the post pregnancy vaginal epithelium, which seems atrophic under the infinitesimal test, is reestablished in 6 to 10 weeks, however the recuperation delays in breastfeeding females because of low estrogen levels. The patient may foster perineal edema, cuts, tears, or go through an episiotomy in the prompt post pregnancy time frame that may prompt uneasiness and torment.
The emission from the bosoms called colostrum increments after labor. Colostrum is plentiful in protein, nutrients and immunoglobulins, and other humoral elements (lactoferrin) and gives an immunological protection to the infant. The mammogenesis or planning of bosoms for lactation begins during pregnancy and involves ductal and lobuloalveolar hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The undeniable degrees of estrogen and progesterone make the bosom tissue lethargic to prolactin. All things considered, as their levels decline the accompanying labor significantly, the prolactin starts its milk secretory action in mammary glans. The lactogenesis or milk discharge begins the third or fourth day post pregnancy.
The neural curve of lactation includes climbing afferent driving forces from areola and areola, enacted by nursing or incitement of areolas, which pass through thoracic tangible nerves to the paraventricular and supraoptic cores of the nerve center, advancing the blend and discharge of Oxytocin from the back pituitary. Oxytocin influences the withdrawal of myoepithelial cells, prompting galactokinesis or milk articulation from the mammary pipes. This delivery is otherwise called “milk launch,” or milk let down reflex.” The milk discharge reflex can be restrained by torment, tension, wretchedness, bosom engorgement, or sorrow. Prolactin keeps up galactopoiesis, characterized as the support of compelling and constant lactation. A sound mother secretes 500-800 ml of milk each day, which requires 700kcal/day. The fat saves up to 5 kg acquired during pregnancy can give enough calories to compensate for any dietary shortage during lactation. It isn’t surprising to foster areola touchiness, mastitis during this stage.
The mother may foster tooting or stoppage because of intestinal ileus (prompted by torment or presence of placental chemical relaxin in the dissemination), loss of body liquids, laxity of stomach divider, and hemorrhoids. The post pregnancy obstruction is because of the progesterone-prompted decline in gastrointestinal travel time. The compressive impacts of the gravid uterus on the stomach, an abatement in bring down esophageal sphincter volume because of high progesterone levels, and hypersecretion of corrosive because of high gastrin levels cause an expansion in the occurrence of indigestion during pregnancy. After conveyance, the degrees of progesterone and gastrin drop inside 24 hours, and the heartburn and related indications resolve in the following three to four days.